Janusz Kacprzyk is Professor of Computer Science at the Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, WIT – Warsaw School of Information Technology, AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, and Professor of Automatic Control at PIAP – Industrial Institute of Automation and Measurements in Warsaw, Poland. He is Honorary Foreign Professor at the Department of Mathematics, Yli Normal University, Xinjiang, China. He is Full Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Member of Academia Europaea, European Academy of Sciences and Arts, European Academy of Sciences, International Academy of Systems and Cybernetics (IASCYS), Foreign Member of the: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Spanish Royal Academy of Economic and Financial Sciences (RACEF), Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters, Flemish Royal Academy of Belgium of Sciences and the Arts (KVAB), Russian Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. He was awarded with 8 honorary doctorates. He is Fellow of IEEE (Life), IET, IFSA, EurAI, IFIP, AAIA, I2CICC, and SMIA.
His main research interests include the use of modern computation computational and artificial intelligence tools, notably fuzzy logic, in systems science, decision making, optimization, control, data analysis and data mining, with applications in mobile robotics, systems modeling, ICT etc.
He authored 7 books, (co)edited more than 150 volumes, (co)authored more than 650 papers, including ca. 150 in journals indexed by the WoS. He is listed in 2020 and 2021 ”World’s 2% Top Scientists” by Stanford University, Elsevier (Scopus) and ScieTech Strategies and published in PLOS Biology Journal.
He is the editor in chief of 8 book series at Springer, and of 2 journals, and is on the editorial boards of ca. 40 journals.. He is President of the Polish Operational and Systems Research Society, Past President of International Fuzzy Systems Association, and is a member of the Adcom (Administrative Committee) of the Computational Intelligence Society of the IEEE, and a member of the Board of Governors of the Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society of the .IEEE.
A difficult road to human-centric smart environments: a problem with human cognitive biases
Smart environments are a popular topic in both the scientific discourse and also in the media and public debates. Though there are many more or less formal definitions of smart environments, for our purposes they can be viewed as a „small world” that constitutes a synergistic collection of sensors, computers and humans who should be synergistically integrated to help complete tasks faced by the humans, both individuals, social groups and the society, using some automated agents, to make the life of the stakeholders better and more satisficing.
For our purposes, we mean the smart environments to be composed of: virtual (or distributed) computing environments which provide the physical devices with a constant and pervasive access, physical environments which include sensors, controllers, tags, etc., and human environments which include individuals, social groups and even society who can be accompanied by smart devices too.
Our main interest is the human environment. Basically, we are concerned mainly with how to best establish user monitoring, in the sense of an active and proactive involvement in the operation of the smart environment, and incentives for the participation of the individuala, social groups and society by a properr proritization of human and societal interests, mainly to safeguard user empowerment, inclusivity and inclusion, human control, and a proper meaningful human involvement.
These aspects of smart environments constitute a very wide research agenda in which all kinds of elelemts of social sciences, cognitive sciences, psychology, decision sciences, etc. should be explicitly employed in addition to computer scince, IT/ICT and the like.
Our focus is on a very interesting problem of human cognitive biases which are basically meant as some often encountered ways of human thinking and reasoning that are not consistent with results of logic, decision theory, etc. Though such biases can be detrimental for a good functioning of smart environment, they mey be relevent. Among such cognitive biases the so-called: (1) Decision making, belief and behavioral biases, (2) Social biases, (3) and Memory errors and biases, will be mentioned. For instance, for the decision making, belief and behavioral biases, the status quo bias or its related principle of minimal change plays a special role as it represents the human propensity to avoid changes, the bandwagon effect is another type which represents the human tendency to do what the majority thinks and does, etc. In total, there are very many cognitive biases which reflect all kinds of human specific „irrational” behavior.
We will show models of some human specific and human centric ways of performing choice and making decisions that reflect the above human characteristics hoping that this can help facilitate and make more effective and efficient the active and proactive involvement of the humans in the smart enviroenments.